No person can adequately provide the total of his or her own needs (II, 369B). google_ad_client = "pub-2379188881946579"; It is difficult to summarize in one sentence the political thought of Plato and Aristotle, however, it is possible to have multiple levels of political reading of their work: * What is man? Filed Under: Personalities Tagged With: Aristotle, aristotle and plato, Aristotle's philosophy, philosophers, philosophy of Aristotle, philosophy of Plato, Plato, plato and aristotle, Plato's philosophy, Koshal is a graduate in Language Studies with a Master's Degree in Linguistics. Plato’s ideal diet is an aristocracy, where knowledge and reason prevail. However, he warns against two excesses of democracy in particular: – Democracy means popular seizure of power by the poor and the oppression of the rich. Such a constitution is the archetype of social disorder, individuality, emphasis rather than suppression of difference, and insubordination to reason. Of all kinds of knowledge and skill, says Aristotle, the most soveriegn is statecraft. Plato actually makes explicit his assumption that unity is intrinsically a positive value while multiplicity is associated with disorder, indulgence and evil. Although Aristotle revered his teacher, his philosophy eventually departed from Plato’s in important respects. The philosopher is not completely different to the ordinary person. His views focused on the individual rather than a society or community as a whole. However, it is vital to note that Aristotle’s criticisms are directed primarily at what he sees as the most extreme democracy, where all of the citizens share and deliberate (VI, iv). Julien Josset, founder. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES. People in this condition, whom he calls hoi mesoi, are most easily obedient to reason; they exhibit the least reluctance and least eagerness to hold office; they are exempt from from the arrogance of the very rich, who cannot understand how to be ruled; and from the wickedness of the poor, who cannot understand how to rule (IV, xi). See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Thus, he was a rationalist. These three metaphysical premises, which concern the connection between whole and part, unity and plurality, teleology and the principle of the middle way, underlie three characteristics which Aristotle ascribes as necessary in any state. Another point on which Aristotle realistically insists is that the true distinction, found in fact, between oligarchy and democracy is not that between rule of the few and rule of the many but between sovereignty of the rich and sovereignty of the poor (III, viii). According to a conventional view, Plato’s philosophy is abstract and utopian, whereas Aristotle’s is empirical, practical, and commonsensical. True knowledge was acquired from reason, and the soul and the beauty in the world was just a part of the reality. This starting point radiates the rest of their political thought. This presentation is a part of my acadamic presentation of Litarary Theory and Criticism, Department of M.A English M. K. Bhavanagar University, and it is submitted to pro. //-->. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. They both thought and worked upon the same lines. Cite The primary difference between Plato and Aristotle lies in their beliefs about what was most authentic about existence. "Difference Between Aristotle and Plato." Substance is the most crucial of the ten categories according to Aristotle. Aristotle urges the discouragement of either exceptional prosperity of any section of the population or extreme indigence. The principle of the middle way thus introduces itself on a number of levels in Aristotle’s exposition of polity. Even the barbarians are endowed with rationality: “Man is a rational animal,” says Aristotle, but it is also a weak in his solitude, so he needs to others because of its failure. Difference between Plato and Aristotle Philosophy Science Ethics Political Theory 9. He thought every concept or object should be studied individually to understand them. The democratic man fosters all parts of the soul equally and “avers that they are all alike and to be equally esteemed.” His life will be run by “indulging the appetite of the day”, and “he says and does whatever enters his head.” In other words, “there is no order or compulsion in his existence” (VIII, 561D). It is most fitting to discuss the difference between Plato and Aristotle in terms of their concepts. Both texts anticipate several problems which modern democracies have actually encountered: relativism, excessive individual licence, disorder in both family life and the state, and inordinate indulgence in appetite and sensation. Plato, on the other hand, gave more importance to the issue of knowledge. It is, according to Aristotle, free of faction, and when it is large enough to outweigh any combination of the other two extremes the constitution has a good chance of being permanent. Even the ideal city, acknowledges Plato, will ultimately crumble. Perhaps unfairly, Aristotle criticises Plato for reducing the state to the satisfaction of minimum needs, with no finer purpose beyond utility and necessity (IV, iv). For the disciple of Plato, no discrimination in the possession of reason. Plato refutes that injustice is better than justice. He would say that the function of a person is only related to his role in society. In defining the good life, Aristotle has recourse to his own earlier formulations in the Ethics: “the life which is best for men, both separately, as individuals, and in the mass, as states, is the life which has virtue sufficiently supported by material resources to facilitate participation in the actions that virtue calls for” (VII, i). The spirit of liberty waxes so strong that eventually even the laws are disregarded and a condition of lawlessness prevails (VIII, 562E-563E). 1 / Let’s start with the idea of ​​man, the concept of humanity in each of the two because it’s from their conception of man that built their philosophies theoretical models (in this sense, all philosophy encompasses a philosophy subjectivity). In Philosophy •Plato believed that concepts had a universal form, an ideal form, which leads to his idealistic philosophy •Aristotle believed that universal forms were not … A correct constitution, he maintains, must enable rule for the common good in accordance with “absolute” justice, not for private advantage. According to him, the philosophers (the famous theory of the philosopher-king) must lead the city. Plato believed that ultimate reality is not present in everyday experiences. ... Based on the Empiricism theory, he further argued that knowledge is universal and the difference is only in the perception of form, (Aristotle I.1.175b22). Who should govern? It is basically a fairly modern democracy, where social positions are open when power is self-control, where governance is followed. Hence democracy fosters genuine individuals, who resist the reduction of their social function, or indeed their natural potential, into one exclusive dimension. And the good aimed at in the state is justice. The most fundamental strategy toward the political implementation of unity is to unite the functions of ruler and philosopher. Independent from any institution or philosophical thought, the site is maintained by a team of former students in human sciences, now professors or journalists. - He is guilty of Elitism. The basic reality was the soul trying to free itself from its physical form. Aristotle’s entire text stresses the plurality of parts in any state and the need to reconcile these (IV, iii). google_ad_height = 15; Again, this might be paralleled with the ironic self-division of human beings in modern bourgeois society, as theorised by commentators from diverse traditions, including some of the Romantics, Hegel, Lukacs, de Tocqueville, and Sartre. Aristotle studied under Plato and remained in his academy for 20 years in Athens but left the academy after Plato’s death. He believed that one had to practice good if one is to be good. This paper is motivated by the pivotal question: what can we learn from the detailed impugnment of democracy offered in Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Politics? He said that if a person knows the right thing that will automatically lead him to do the right thing. Is the Coronavirus Crisis Increasing America's Drug Overdoses? If you wish to opt out, please close your SlideShare account. Please note: comment moderation is enabled and may delay your comment. Such contrasts are famously suggested in the … Copyright © 2020 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Their studies were vast, and it is very difficult to compile all their teachings and philosophies here. – Plato, man is divided into three parts: one is composed of desires, is the most animal, most domestic of men, the second is courage, heart, looking for noble action and the last is the head, seat of learning and intelligence. This is qualified, however, by Aristotle’s view that the “same things are best for a community and for individuals” (VII, xiv).