However, if they can find just a few initial individuals to be in the study then they can ask them to recruit further individuals they may know through a private support group or through some other means. This progressive development of the study is the actual snowball effect. a) Your pre-specified sample size has been completed; c) Pursuing further cases will make the project unmanageable due to the large size. Snowball sampling is also sometimes referred to as chain-referral sampling. Examples include: Individuals with rare diseases. For example, it will be extremely challenging to … A researcher might have a difficult time recruiting someone with a rare disease to be involved in a study, but if that person is being recruited by someone who has the exact same disease, they’re far more likely to oblige. In other words, snowball sampling method is based on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. Snowball sampling (also known as chain-referral sampling) is a. . If researchers are conducting a study of individuals with rare diseases, it may be difficult to find these individuals. It is not possible to determine the actual pattern of distribution of population. Interpretivism (interpretivist) Research Philosophy, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step approach. Snowball sampling doesn’t require a research team to hire recruiters for the study since the initial subjects act as the recruiters who bring in additional subjects. The ability to recruit hidden populations, The possibility to collect primary data in a cost-effective manner, Studies with snowball sampling can be completed in a short duration of time, A very little planning is required to start primary data collection process, Oversampling a particular network of peers can lead to bias, Respondents may be hesitant to provide names of peers and asking them to do so may raise ethical concerns. It is not possible to determine the sampling error and make statistical inferences from the sample to the population due to the absence of random selection of samples. Also, snowball sampling is the most popular in business studies focusing on a specific company that involve primary data collection from employees of that company. As the sample builds up, enough data are gathered to be useful for research. Advantages of Snowball Sampling. However, it’s much easier to recruit these individuals if they’re being recruited by people who are in similar circumstances as them and can reassure them that their privacy will be maintained in the study. Because the sample is likely to be biased, it can be hard to draw conclusions about the larger population with any confidence. This pattern is continued until the sample group is fully formed. There is no guarantee about the representativeness of samples. Get the spreadsheets here: Try out our free online statistics calculators if you’re looking for some help finding probabilities, p-values, critical values, sample sizes, expected values, summary statistics, or correlation coefficients. Subjects give multiple referrals, however, only one new subject is recruited among them. Because initial subjects recruit additional subjects, it’s likely that many of the subjects will share similar traits or characteristics that might be unrepresentative of the larger population under study. Exponential non-discriminative snowball sampling. Snowball Sampling: Definition . Introduction. The choice of a new subject is guided by the aim and objectives of the study. Examples for business, study, careers, love, and more... 101 Sample Write Ups for Documenting Employee Performance Problems, Interview with Paul Falcone, Economics by Example, Interview with David A Anderson, Example of Business Strategy: Why Referrals Matter and How They Can Make You More Money, Example of Customer Services, Examples of Good Customer Services, Examples Customer Services, Example of Employment Verification Letter, Example of Executive Summary for a Business Proposal (Finance, Startup), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowball_sampling, https://www.uic.edu/classes/socw/socw560/SAMPLING/sld044.htm, https://oregonstate.edu/research/ori/snowball.html. Snowball sampling (also known as chain-referral sampling) is a non-probability (non-random) sampling method used when characteristics to be possessed by samples are rare and difficult to find. Exponential discriminative snowball sampling. 3. The most obvious example of this would be a simple random sample. However, researchers could find a few homeless individuals and then ask them to recruit more individuals they know who are homeless to be involved in the study. For this reason, snowball sampling is often used as part of exploratory analysis – when researchers are simply interested in gaining a better understanding of a certain population and potentially uncovering information that they weren’t aware of. In sociology and statistics research, snowball sampling (or chain sampling, chain-referral sampling, referral sampling ) is a nonprobability samplingtechnique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances. For example, if obtaining subjects for a study that wants to observe a rare disease, the researcher may opt to use snowball sampling since it will be difficult to obtain subjects. My e-book, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step approach contains a detailed, yet simple explanation of sampling methods. If researchers are interested in conducting a study of ex-convicts, it could be difficult to find a large sample of people who would be willing to come forward to be in the study. How to Find Confidence Intervals in R (With Examples). This sampling method involves primary data sources nominating another potential primary data sources to be used in the research. The sample for the study is not guaranteed to be. It may be difficult to obtain a list of homeless individuals in a city. Required fields are marked *. Formation of a sample group starts with only one subject and the subject provides only one referral. This sampling technique is often used in hidden populations, such as drug users or sex workers, which are difficult for researchers to acc… After all, using this method, the only way that an individual could become part of a study is if they were recruited directly by a researcher to be an initial subject or if they were recruited by a subject that was already in the study. Application of snowball sampling involves the following stages: If using questionnaire as primary data collection method, you can effectively apply snowball sampling with the use of emails. Ex-convicts. The 'snowball' metaphor relates to the fact that the study expands, using additional participants gathered from the original sample subjects and provides further elements for study of the subject. Your email address will not be published. Your email address will not be published. a sample that is representative of the larger population.